William the Conqueror built two castles in York following his conquest. The first one was started in 1068, but was destroyed during a local rebellion. During a siege in 1190, citizens of the Jewish community who had taken refuge there burnt it down, committing suicide in the process, to avoid capture. In the 13th century, it was rebuilt in stone and later became known as Clifford's Tower after Roger de Clifford, who was hanged there in 1322.
clifford's tower  

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